Rajiv Awas Yojana:
Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) for the slum dwellers and the urban poor envisages a ‘Slum-free India’ through encouraging States/Union Territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner. It calls for a multi-pronged approach focusing on:
• Bringing existing slums within the formal system and enabling them to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town;
• Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums; and
• Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor and force them to resort to extra-legal solutions in a bid to retain their sources of livelihood and employment.
An outline of the broad policy issues that need to be addressed by States/UTs under RAY
is provided in Annexure I.
2. Central Support: Pre-Conditions
2.1 As in JNNURM, the goals of RAY will be driven and incentivised by the provision of central support for slum redevelopment and construction of affordable housing condi- tional to a set of reforms necessary for urban development to become inclusive. Annex- ure II describes the admissible and inadmissible components currently envisaged under RAY.
2.2. As regards reforms under RAY, security of tenure through entitlement will be critical for the overarching aim of promoting inclusive cities. Accordingly, Central Assistance under RAY will be predicated on the condition that States/UTs assign legal title to slum-dwellers over their dwelling space. The other reforms include the continuation of the three pro- poor reforms of JNNURM till they are legislated and internalised as part of the system; legislation for property rights to all slum dwellers; reform to the rental and rent control laws regarding urban housing; and review and amendment to the legislations, rules and regulations governing urban planning and development structures and systems towards an adequate response to the demands, process and pace of urbanisation. The three pro- poor reforms under JNNURM are reiterated as follows:
i) Internal earmarking within local body budgets for basic services to the urban poor;
ii) Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuring delivery of other already existing universal services of the government for education, health and so- cial security; and
iii) Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land in all housing projects (both public and private agencies) for EWS/LIG category with a system of cross-subsidization.
3. State Slum-free Plan of Action (POA)
3.1 Rajiv Awas Yojana envisages that each State would prepare a State Slum-free Plan of Action (POA). The preparation of legislation for assignment of property rights to slum- dwellers would be the first step for State POA. The POA would need to be in two parts, Part-1 regarding the upgradation of existing slums and Part-2 regarding the action to prevent new slums. In Part-1 the State would need to survey and map all exiting slums in selected cities proposed by the State for coverage under RAY. In Part-2 the Plan would need to assess the rate of growth of the city with a 20 year perspective, and based on the numbers specify the actions proposed to be taken to obtain commensurate lands or virtual lands and promote the construction of affordable EWS houses so as to stay abreast of the demand. This part would need also to make necessary legislative and administrative changes to enable urban land expansion, and in town planning regulations to legislate reservations for EWS/LIG housing in all new developments. Annexure III indicates the broad outline of a State Slum-free Plan of Action (POA).
3.2 The State POA would include the cities identified by the State and intended to be covered under RAY in five years, and their phasing. It will commit to a ‘whole city’ approach, so that an integrated and holistic plan is prepared for the upgradation of all existing slums, notified or non-notified, in each identified city. Within a city, in each slum taken up for redevelopment, a holistic coverage would be required, with provision of all basic civic infrastructure and services as well as decent housing, with emphasis on planned layouts (after reconfiguration of plots based on existing / modified building bye-laws wherever necessary) and on total sanitation (by provision of individual toilets and water supply to each household). With regard to housing, the State may adopt a flexible approach as to the manner of construction and arrangement of funds for construction, to follow a ben- eficiary-built housing model with design and technical support from the Municipality/State, or to construct housing through state parastatal or private partners or by delineating a mix of methods. The POA would be expected to give primacy to a Public-Private-Part- nership model that would enable it to cross-subsidise through FSI and land use conces- sions as much of the slum redevelopment as possible. The POA would be required to describe the model proposed to be followed in each slum, the efforts for obtaining the community’s participation and the financial strategy for holistic development along with timelines.
3.3 The State POA will include Slum-free City Plans of Action for the cities identified for inclusion under RAY. While the City POA has to be developed for each city included under RAY as a whole, the pace of slum upgradation within the city can be phased out. For the purpose of phasing, each city may be divided into zones and each zone be taken up as a whole to ensure the universal provision of basic infrastructure and services and decent housing in all slums in the zone, and to attain slum-freeness. A city-wide/zone- based approach would enable shifting untenable slums to the nearest possible available vacant land or notified slum which has the space to receive them.
3.4 States would be required to forward the Slum-free City Plans of Action (POA) to the
Centre for clearance along with the bill for assignment of property rights cleared by the
State Cabinet and the commitment of the Government as to the session of the State Assembly before which it will be placed. In considering the POA, the Centre would particularly assess that the cities have been chosen to maximise cross-subsidisation, that the extent of commitment for cross-subsidisation through PPP has been fully explored; and that the mechanisms for community participation have been clearly delineated and activated.
4. Slum-free City Planning: Methodology
4.1 Conceptual Framework
Slum-free City Cell in Urban Local Body headed by the Municipal Commissioner/Execu- tive Officer will be primarily responsible for the preparation of Slum-free City Plans based on guidelines provided by the concerned State Government and support extended by the Nodal Agency for Rajiv Awas Yojana at the State level. The diagram in the next page provides a conceptual framework for the preparation of Slum-free City Plan.
4.2 Planning Methodology
The preparation of Slum-free City Plan will broadly involve Slum Redevelopment/Reha- bilitation Plans based on (a) survey of all slums – notified and non-notified; (b) mapping of slums using the state-of-art technology; (c) integration of geo-spatial and socio-economic data; and (d) identification of development model proposed for each slum. Base maps to an appropriate scale would be a pre-requisite for the preparation of Slum Redevelopment Plan/Slum-free City Plan. States/UTs may need to proceed in the following steps for the preparation of Slum-free City Plans.
(i) Securing CARTOSAT II/latest satellite images from NRSC/ISRO and preparation of
base maps for the whole city and its fringes using the images;
(ii) Identification and inventory of all slum clusters of all descriptions in the urban ag- glomeration with the help of satellite image and other available data;
(iii) Inventory of all possible vacant lands in each zone of the urban agglomeration that could be used for slum redevelopment/ rehabilitation development purposes;
(iii) Development of Slum Map of every slum within the city and its fringes using GIS with CARTOSAT II images, ground level spatial data collected through total station survey, collating spatial information with respect to plot boundaries, network of basic infrastructure like roads, sewerage, storm drainage and water lines, etc and superimposing this on the satellite image and importing them into GIS platform as the first step towards the preparation of Slum Development Plans and Slum Free City Plan. This may be undertaken with the help of technical partners of NRSC/ ISRO/other technical institutions/agencies;
(v) Identification and engagement of Lead NGO/CBO to guide and anchor community mobilization for the purpose of slum survey, (May be more than one NGO/CBO in different slum zones) of the city. These Lead NGOs/CBOs should also be associ- ated in slum survey operations and dialogues for preparation of slum level redevel- opment plans;
(vi) Conduct of Slum Survey based on the detailed formats (with or without changes) prepared by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation with the help of National Buildings Organisation (NBO) - after due training of trainers,